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Yakupoğlu T., Karasu E.

Eskişehir Technical University Journal of Science and and Technology A- Applied Sciences and Engineering, vol.24, pp.33-50, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)


In this study, the Miocene lithostratigraphic units (Turabi, Çincavat and Tuzluca formations) outcropping in the Neogene Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in the west of Iğdır province were studied. The units are represented by evaporitic, carbonate and clayey rocks. This study aims to determine the mineralogical and geochemical properties of these rocks and to interpret the data to evaluate paleodepositional conditions. For this purpose X-ray diffraction (XRD) whole rock and clay fraction, Optical Microscope (OM) studies, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) element identifications and, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (FESEM-EDS) analyses of rock samples taken along the sections measured in the field were carried out. Quartz, feldspar, mica, calcite, gypsum and halite minerals were determined in whole rock compositions of the samples. Smectite, illite, chlorite and paligorskite minerals were found in the clay fractions. OM, FESEM-EDS and XRF studies indicate that the origins of gypsum, halite, calcite and palygorskite minerals are authigenic while chlorite, illite, quartz, feldspar and mica were detrital. The predominance of smectite, as well as the presence of chlorite, illite and palygorskite indicate that the basin developed under alkaline conditions, mostly hot and humid, and occasionally arid and cold climates. The positive correlation of SiO2 with MgO signifies the input of clay and other clastic materials to the basin. While high positive correlation (R2=0.80) between Zn and Fe2O3 indicates the Zn element is of biological origin; high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni and Co suggest the high activity of the microorganisms.