Analysis of Engineering Elements of K‑12 Science Standards in Seven Countries Engaged in STEM Education Reform

Ekiz-Kıran B., Aydın S.

Science & Education, vol.30, no.4, pp.1-34, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SSCI)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11191-021-00227-w
  • Title of Journal : Science & Education
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-34


The purpose of this study was to analyze the K-12 science standards of seven countries that

have improved their engineering practices noticeably by integrating engineering and its

elements into their science documents, namely, Australia, England, Estonia, Hong Kong,

South Africa, Turkey, and the United States. For this purpose, K-12 science standard documents

were examined vis-à-vis their inclusion and distribution of engineering and its elements

across grade bands. Standards were analyzed through content analysis by employing

the Framework for Quality K-12 Engineering Education. The results showed that the

United States and to some extent Turkish standard documents had placed a particular

emphasis on engineering. The number of standards relating to engineering is the highest

in the United States and the lowest in Estonia. These standards across grade bands were

distributed evenly in the documents of England and the United States. Science standard

documents in early grades included few such standards. In light of the results, we discussed

the extent and comprehensiveness of engineering integrated into the K-12 science standard

documents and provided implications for integrating engineering elements into science

standard documents.