The utilization of novel NaF/Al2O3 catalysts in the process of hydrothermal liquefaction of Crambe orientalis: synthesis and characterization

Genel S., Durak H.

Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, vol.46, no.1, pp.3748-3759, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/15567036.2024.2323707
  • Journal Name: Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, Greenfile, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.3748-3759
  • Keywords: alumina, Crambe orientalis, Heterogeneous catalyst, hydrothermal liquefaction, sodium fluoride
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


This research study explores the influence of NaF/Al2O3 catalysts on the process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Crambe Orientalis. Three distinct catalysts were prepared and examined through a multitude of methodologies including FT-IR, BET, XRD and SEM/EDX/EDS. The HTL were made at temperatures ranging from 275 to 350°C for a duration of 0 to 60 minutes. The liquid products obtained were subjected to elemental, GC-MS, FT-IR, and1H NMR analyses. The findings of this study demonstrate that NaF/Al2O3 catalysts effectively enhance the yield of liquid products. The liquid products that were obtained displayed an exceptionally elevated carbon content, with a maximum value of 80.97% achieved at a temperature of 350°C. These liquid products exhibit superior heating values (HHV), which vary between 37.64 and 29.31 MJ/kg. The catalysts demonstrated efficacy in enhancing the liquid product yield, characterized by a heightened proportion of aliphatic compounds and a diminished ratio of oxygen constituents. It was determined that the obtained catalysts may have the potential to obtain liquid products with high carbon content and energy values.