Oxidative stress plays an important role in causing diabetes; however, no studies have thoroughly reported on the toxic and beneficial effects of lichen extracts in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study covers a previously unrecognized effect of two well-known lichen species Cetraria islandica and Pseudevernia furfuracae in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. In experimental design, control or diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with aqueous lichen extracts (250-500 mg/kg /day) for 2 weeks starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized, and metabolic and biochemical parameters were appreciated between control and treatment groups. The histopathology of liver was examined using three different staining methods: hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), periodic acid Schiff (PAS), and reticulin and Sudan Black B. Our experimental data showed that increasing doses of C. islandica and P. furfuracae alone did not have any detrimental effects on studied parameters and the malondialdehyde level of liver. C. islandica extract showed positive results for antioxidant capacity compared to doses of P. furfuracae extract. However, the protective effect of C. islandica extract on diabetes-induced disorders and hepatic damages is still unclear. Moreover, unfortunately, animals subjected to DM therapy did not benefit from the usage of increasing lichen doses due to their unchanged antioxidant activity in tissues. The results obtained in present study suggested that C. islandica and P. furfuracae is safe but the power of these is limited because of intensive oxidative stress in liver of type 1 diabetic rats. It is also implied that C. islandica extract is especially suitable for different administration routes in DM animals.