In Turkish folk medicine, the fruits of Pyrus elaeagnifolia subsp. elaeagnifolia have been used to treat diarrhea and detoxify poisonous snake bites by enlarging the wound. The aim of the study was to confirm the ethnopharmacological usage of the plant using in vivo and in vitro models. Experimental colitis was performed under anesthesia by intrarectal administration of acetic acid in rats, and the extracts were administered orally. The colonic malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitrite levels, in addition to the myeloperoxidase (MPO) and caspase-3 activities, were measured to determine the effects of the plant extracts. The methanol (MeOH) extract revealed a significant decrease in MPO and caspase-3 levels. The MeOH extract was found to have the highest total tannin content. It was also found to have significant antioxidant (p < 0.01) and anti-inflammatory activities (p < 0.05) in acetic acid induced colitis rat model . According to our results, the present study exhibited a decrease in MDA, nitrite, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels in the colon tissue and blood in the MeOH extract treated group. The findings of this study can help in treating various disorders, such as Clostridium difficile infection, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel diseases.