Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, sa.48, ss.225-252, 2020 (Hakemli Üniversite Dergisi)
Fromthe 19th century onwards, an inquiry and search began over there lationship of the governing and the governed between the Turkish intellectuals and their administrators. The searchfor a system in the modern sense based on citizenship from the Reaya system actually includes the historical adventure of the idea of domination. Applications expressing this understanding have been reflected to the system from time to time from Mahmud II onwards. These initiatives have evolved within the historical process and formed their own tradition.This tradition is respectively shaped as the declaration of the Tanzimat Edict, the declaration of the 1st Constitutional Era, theopening of the Meclis-i Mebusan, the II. Thedeclaration of the Constitutional Monarchy the opening of the TBBM and thedeclaration of the Republic. This process also produced an intellectual environment ranging from theYoung Ottomans to the staff that established the Republic. Along with the reflection of tradition on life, contradictions and implementation problems have occurred both in the field of though tand in the institutional sense. These contradictions and implementation problems caused them to divergefromthe idea of nationalityanddeviations in theoperation of theregimebuilt on it. The best example of these deviations is the military's constant intervention in the system, namely coups. It is also interesting tha twhile understanding of nationality of these coups was being structured as a regime, they were supported by political parties and universities that were thought to have a vigorous power.