Hydrochemical characteristics of surface and groundwater and suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the Upper Tigris River Basin, Diyarbakir-Batman, Turkey

Dişli E.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.76, no.14, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76 Issue: 14
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-017-6820-5
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: Zillek springs, Tigris River, Hydrogeochemistry, Drinking purposes, Irrigation water quality, INDIA, WATER, DISTRICTS, QUALITY
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Investigations were undertaken into the quality of surface water and groundwater bodies within the Upper Tigris Basin in Turkey to determine their suitability for potable and agricultural use. In the study area, the majority of the groundwater and surface water samples belong to the calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate type (Ca-Mg-HCO3) or magnesium-calcium-bicarbonate type (Mg-Ca-HCO3). Chemical analysis of all water samples shows that the mean cation concentrations (in mg/L) were in the order Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ and that of anions are in the order HCO3- > SO42- > Cl- > CO3- for all groundwater and surface water samples. The Mg (2+)/Ca2+ ratio ranges from 0.21 to 1.30 with most of the values greater than 0.5, indicating that weathering of dolomites is dominant in groundwater. The analysis reveals that all of the samples are neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 7.0-8.7). Groundwater and surface water suitability for drinking usage was evaluated according to the World Health Organization and Turkish Standards (TSE-266) and suggests that most of the samples are suitable for drinking. Various determinants such as sodium absorption ratio, percent sodium (Na %), residual sodium carbonate and soluble sodium percentage revealed that most of the samples are suitable for irrigation. According to MH values, all of the well water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes, but 80 and 81.82% of Zillek springs and surface water samples were unsuitable. As per the PI values, the water samples from the study area are classified as Class I and Class II and are considered to be suitable for irrigation.