Objective: To determine the frequency of taurodontism in maxillary and mandibular molar teeth using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to compare the differences in root and canal morphologies between taurodont and nontaurodont molars. Methods: CBCT images of 1200 patients were analysed. First, the frequency of taurodontism in maxillary and mandibular molar teeth was calculated. The Shifman and Chanannel taurodontic index was used to diagnose taurodontic teeth. Subsequently, the root and canal morphologies were compared with those of 250 normal teeth randomly selected from each tooth group. P < 0.05 values were considered significant in statistical tests. The chisquare test was used for differences according to sex, age and tooth position. Z-test was used for comparing percentages between independent groups. Results: The occurrence rate of taurodontism was 7.78 % and 12.72 % in maxillary first and second molar teeth, respectively, and 1.99 % and 2.41 % in mandibular first and second molar teeth, respectively. Women had more taurodont teeth than men. The frequency of root fusion was greater in taurodont maxillary molars. The percentage of C-shaped roots in taurodont mandibular second molars was significantly higher than in cynodonts (19.15 % and 8.4 %, respectively). Conclusions: Taurodont teeth show wide variations in root and canal morphology. The degree of change in morphology is associated with the severity of taurodontism.