Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of lactuca scariola with a heterogeneous catalyst: The investigation of temperature, reaction time and synergistic effect of catalysts

DURAK H. , Genel S.

Bioresource Technology, vol.309, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 309
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123375
  • Title of Journal : Bioresource Technology
  • Keywords: Lactuca scariola, Hydrothermal liquefaction, Heterogen catalyst, Bio-oil, THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION, BIOFUEL PRODUCTION, BIOMASS, RESIDUES, WATER


In this study, lignocellulosic biomass was converted into liquid products by catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction. Zn, Fe, and Zn + Fe were used to obtaining products with high energy value as heterogeneous catalyst systems in this study. The different experimental parameters were used to examine temperature (220, 240, 260, 280, 300 degrees C), reaction time (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 min.), and the synergistic effect of catalysts (Zn + Fe) on conversion rate. The products obtained were examined by GC-MS, Elemental, FT-IR, H-1 NMR, SEM-EDX, and XRD analysis methods. According to the results of the experiment, it has been determined that Fe is the most effective catalyst for light bio-oil and heavy bio-oil yields and Zn + Fe is the most effective catalyst system for the gas + aqueous phase products. Fe catalyst in monoaromatics formation, Zn catalyst in polyaromatic and aliphatics compound formation, Zn + Fe catalyst system in oxygen compounds formation are effective.