III. Uluslararası Türkoloji Araştırmaları Sempozyumu, Van, Turkey, 14 - 15 October 2021, pp.100-101
In this study, the demographic structure and the change in the educational status of the population in the city of Van and its surrounding rural neighborhoods in 30 years were examined. The aim of the study is to reveal the demographic structure and the change in the education level of the population in the city and its immediate surroundings in a 30-year period. For this purpose, the population structure and education level of the central district of Van were revealed from the 1990 and 2000 general population census data by using TUIK data. In addition, the demographic structure of İpekyolu, Tusba and Edremit districts and the educational status of the population in these districts were revealed by using the data of the Address Based Population Registration System and National Education Statistics for the year 2020. In this way, the change in the demographic structure and educational status of the city of Van and its surroundings at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century has been determined.
Ipekyolu and Tusba districts were established with the division of the previous Van central district, depending on the metropolitan law numbered 6360, which entered into force in 2013. For this reason, it was thought that it would be beneficial to use the data of the newly established İpekyolu and Tusba districts, which are the central districts of the city of Van, and the Edremit district, which is close to the city, while calculating the demographic structure and educational status data in 2020.
According to 1990 data, the population of the central district of Van was 207,870 and 153.111 of this population lived in the city of Van and 54,759 lived in rural settlements within the borders of the central district. In other words, approximately 73.7% of the population in the central district lived in the city of Van, while the remaining 26.3 lived in rural settlements in the immediate vicinity.
According to 1990 data, 48.4% of the population in the central district of Van consisted of 0-14 age group, 49.9% was 15-64 age group and 1.8% was 65+ age group. According to 1990 data, the literacy rate in the central district of Van was 65.8%, and 9.3% of them graduated from secondary school, 10.2% from high school or equivalent, and 3% from higher education institutions.
While the population of the central district of Van increased to 356,371 in 2000, 43.9% of this population consisted of children, 53.8% of the population of working age and 2.4% of the elderly population. According to 2000 data, while the rate of literate people in the central district of Van was 87.6%, 10.4% of them graduated from primary-secondary school, 12.2% from high school and 4.6% from higher education institutions.
According to 2020 data, the population of İpekyolu district is 334,470; The population of Tusba district was 162,153 and the population of Edremit district was 128,557. In short, according to 2020 data, there is a population of 625.180 people in the city of Van and its immediate surroundings, of which 31.8% is children, 64.2% is of working age and 4% is elderly population. According to the data of 2020, while the literacy rate of the population in İpekyolu, Tusba and Edremit districts is 95.3%, 31.9% of those who can read and write in these districts are secondary school-primary school, 19.4% are high school or equivalent, 13.1% One of them was a graduate of higher education institution.
As it can be understood from the data, there have been significant changes in the structure of the population and educational status in the city of Van and its immediate surroundings during the 1990-2020 period. In the 30-year period, while the proportion of child population decreased from 48.4% to 31.8%, the ratio of the working age population increased from approximately 50% to 64%, and the ratio of the elderly population increased from 1.8% to 4%. In the same period, the dependency ratio of the population decreased from 100.5% to 55.8%. Again, in the 1990-2020 period, the literacy rate in Van city and its immediate surroundings increased from 65.8% to 95.3%, and in the same period, the rate of high school graduates among those who could read and write increased from 10.2% to 19.4%. and the rate of university graduates increased from 3% to 13.1%. When the education level of the population is examined in the 1990-2020 period, the literacy rate and the rate of secondary school, high school and university graduates differ according to gender, and these rates were quite low in the female population.