Effect of economic growth, energy use, trade openness and foreign direct investments on carbon dioxide emissions. Evidence from G8 countries

Aydın F. F.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.30, no.53, pp.113538-113552, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 53
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-023-29827-5
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.113538-113552
  • Keywords: CO2 emissions, Economic growth, Energy usage, Foreign direct investment, G8 countries, Trade openness
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


The problem of climate change, which causes various negativities in the global sense, is one of the important research topics. It is necessary to determine the factors affecting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which are the main determinants of climate change, and to take measures for this. In this study, based on the hypothesis that economic growth, energy usage, trade openness, and foreign direct investment affect CO2 emissions, it was aimed to examine the effects of economic growth, energy usage, trade openness, and foreign direct investment on CO2 emissions for G8 countries using annual data for the period 1990–2018. For this purpose, first, a literature review was done in the study. Then, cross-section dependency and heterogeneity tests were performed as empirical analyses. Afterward, unit root tests, cointegration analyses, and causality analyses were performed in the study. Finally, in the study, short-term parameters and long-term parameters were estimated to capture possible dynamic relationships between variables. The Westerlund Error Correction Model (ECM) panel test for cointegration showed that there is a cointegration relationship between these variables for both the entire panel and the cross-section units. The results of the Augmented Mean Group (AMG) estimator method showed that (i) economic growth has no effect on CO2 emissions in 7 of 8 countries, (ii) energy usage increases CO2 emissions in 4 of the countries studied but decreases it in one of them, and (iii) foreign direct investments and trade openness do not affect CO2 emissions in 4 countries but positively affects in 2 countries and negatively in 2 countries. According to the results obtained from the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) analysis, while economic growth, energy usage, and trade openness affect CO2 emissions in the long run, economic growth, energy use, and trade openness affect CO2 emissions in the short run too. According to Dumitrescu-Hurlin panel causality results, it was seen that there is no causal relationship between CO2 emissions, economic growth, and energy use. While there is a unidirectional causality from CO2 emissions to foreign direct investments, it was determined that there is a bidirectional causality between trade openness and CO2 emissions. When the results were examined in general, it was understood that the variables of economic growth, trade openness, foreign direct investment, and energy usage are effective on CO2 emissions in the G8 countries. It would be beneficial for countries to include the objectives of making production with clean production technologies, ensuring efficient use of energy, and expanding the use of renewable energies among their main targets.