We investigated both the effect of levosimendan and the role of oxidant/antioxidant status and trace element levels in the pulmonary artery of rats. Fourteen male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into two groups of seven animals each. Group 1 was not exposed to levosimendan and served as a control. Levosimendan (12 mu g/kg) diluted in 10 ml 0.9 % NaCl was administered intraperitoneally to group 2. Animals of both groups were killed after 3 days, and their pulmonary arteries were harvested to determine changes in tissue oxidant/antioxidant status and trace element levels. The animals in both groups were killed 72 h after the levosimendan exposure treatment, and pulmonary arteries were harvested to determine levels of the lipid peroxidation product MDA and the antioxidant GSH as well as the decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GSH-Px and CAT. It was found that MDA levels increased in pulmonary artery tissues of rats after levosimendan administration. The GSH level decreased in the pulmonary artery of rats after levosimendan treatment. Co, Mn, Fe, Cd and Pb levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) and Mg, Zn and Cu levels significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the levosimendan group compared to the control group. These results suggest that levosimendan treatment caused an increase in free radical production and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity in the pulmonary artery of levosimendan-treated rats. It also caused a decrease or increase in the levels of many minerals in the pulmonary artery, which is an undesirable condition for normal pharmacological function.