It is known that the high electronegativity of fluorine affects various soft tissues, especially the bone structure in organisms. Of these tissues are the kidneys, which play an important role in the excretion of fluoride from the body. Fluoride affects many cellular mechanisms. One of these effects is DNA damage. Our study aimed to investigate the likely protective effect of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on genomic DNA damage-induced NaF depending on concentration and time. The IC25 and IC50 values of NaF for 3, 12 and 24 h and optimum dose of increase in proliferation to vitamin D-3 through MTT assay in NRK-52E kidney cells were determined. DNA damage was significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared to the control group in all groups except for vitamin D-3 It was determined that treatment with NaF together with vitamin D-3 decreased the DNA damage compared to NaF treated groups for 3 and 12 h. NaF combined with vitamin D3 was determined statistically to decrease (p < 0.05) DNA damage compared to NaF treated groups for 24 h. As a result, it was determined that the treatment with cytotoxic concentration NaF depending on the time significantly increased (p < 0.05) the genomic DNA damage, but NaF treatment together with vitamin D-3 decreased the DNA damage in renal cells depending on the time. It was concluded that vitamin D-3 may be useful in preventing DNA damage caused by NaF.