Duman Ş., Beşgen A.

LIVable ENvironments & ARCHitecture 6th international congress, Trabzon, Turkey, 25 - 28 September 2019, vol.1, pp.15-33

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 1
  • City: Trabzon
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.15-33
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Many concepts such as population growth, economic crises, revolutions, wars, unemployment, immigration and refugee movements forced the act of producing architecture, away from its original purpose, into an endeavor to build characterless and spiritless buildings which are actually incompatible with the context, isolated from their places, not alive but nonetheless serve as forced habitats. Within this fact and in reference to the Livenarch-VI’s theme of “Replacing Architecture”, “the uprooted architects” who are expatriated and lived abroad, and the buildings they produced are certainly worthy of debate. In this aim, the proposed paper intends to lead to a discussion within the framework of the congress, on the architecture of Bruno Taut, who was considered as a “stateless architect”, and who stayed in numerous locations including Koenigsberg (East Prussia), Hamburg, Wiesbaden, Magdeburg, Berlin, (Germany), Osaka, Tokyo (Japan), Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Trabzon (Turkey) through years, due to various political, social and economic reasons. Taut left his mark in every place he lived in, even Turkey, which he often called “the land of Sinan”. He was an architect “who did not belong to a single place”, and who had addressed even today as he approached the architectural problems of his era with specific references to his day. In his discourses, Taut developed as solutions for existing problems; he discussed architecture based on the “spirit of the place” and universal solution proposals for the “replacing architects and architecture”, which arose out of the problems of the day. Through his opposition to the codification of absolute rules for construction, he offered different perspectives towards the architectural 16 thought of the modern era, and built a synthesis of traditional-modern architecture. He claimed that architecture is a universal language, that formal and dogmatic architecture is simply unacceptable in a perspective of architecture in harmony with the humanity. With a view to understand and explain Bruno Taut on the basis of “place”, “emotions”, “spirit” and “essence”, the authors came up with the method of “production of concepts”. A number of concepts including “background” (Taut’s design philosophy), “betweenness” (the balance Taut established between science and art, past and future, transparent and opaque), “openendedness” (Taut’s flexible, creative and legible solutions) and “retrospection” (Taut’s various spaces which allow and enable the accumulation of memories on part of the individual) were proposed by the authors. The architectural perspective that does not require a move to find itself a suitable background, one that was nonetheless proposed by an architect who did his share of moving around was discussed with reference to the universal thought system, principles and concepts considered the legacy of the architect and architecture. Key Words: Bruno Taut; Trabzon Lisesi (Trabzon High School); Production of Concepts; Background; Betweenness; Open-endedness; Retrospection.