Reduction of bitterness in green walnuts by conventional and ultrasound-assisted maceration

Ugurlu S., Okumuş E., Bakkalbaşı E.

ULTRASONICS SONOCHEMISTRY, vol.66, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105094
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Applied Science & Technology Source, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Debittering process, Maceration, Phenolic content, Ultrasonication, Walnut jam, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, PHENOLIC-COMPOUNDS, ELLAGIC ACID, OLIVE OIL, COLOR
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


The efficiency of conventional and ultrasound-assisted maceration was investigated in comparison to reduce the bitterness of green walnuts. Conventional maceration was studied at room temperature for 6, 8 and 10 days while ultrasound-assisted maceration (20 kHz, %100 of amplitude) was performed at 36 degrees C for 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 h. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of green walnuts were decreased by reduction of bitterness. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of green walnut jams prepared from debittered green walnuts by ultrasound-assisted maceration were higher than those of conventional maceration excluding ellagic acid only. Based on findings of sensory analyses, bitterness level was similar in green walnut jams prepared by ultrasound-assisted maceration for 12 h and conventional maceration for 6 days. On the other hand, green walnut jams processed by ultrasound-assisted maceration for 12 h led to the highest general acceptance. It was concluded that ultrasound-assisted maceration may provide better nutritional and sensory quality in green walnut jam. In addition, the time required for reduction of bitterness may be shortened from days to hours by ultrasound-assisted maceration.