Effects of impingement oven parameters and formula variation on sugar snap cookies

Dogan I., WALKER C.

CEREAL FOODS WORLD, vol.44, no.8, pp.597-603, 1999 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 44 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 1999
  • Journal Name: CEREAL FOODS WORLD
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.597-603
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Sugar snap cookies were baked in reel and impingement ovens. The effects of oven conditions and formula variations were studied. Response surface methodology was used for optimization and evaluation. Once responses for color, spread, and baking loss were considered, an optimum combination for baking was determined to be 40 Hz fan speed, 9 min baking time, and 160 degrees C oven temperature. The spread ratio was lower in the impingement oven, where higher temperatures and air velocities caused the cookie surfaces to dry faster. Among the formula variations tested, sugar level had a greater effect on the spread. Cookie color did not change with the formula variations, but color was lighter in the reel oven. The cookie thickness affected color intensity and the number of cracks, and crack ratio was lower in the impingement oven. A relatively high correlation between variations and the response variables was found. Response surface method second order equations fit the data well and provided a powerful tool to optimize quality.