This study aimed to determine undergraduate and associate degree students’ computer programming attitude and self-efficacy levels, and compare them according to thinking style, gender, department, weekly study time, and programming experience variables. The study employed the correlational research model. The researcher attempted to reach all associate and undergraduate students who had received the computer programming course at a state university. The computer programming self-efficacy scale, the computer programming attitude scale, and the holistic and analytic thinking in problem-solving scale were used to collect research data. Results suggested that the participants with different thinking styles showed significant differences regarding programming attitude and programming self-efficacy. Programming attitude and thinking style were significant predictors of programming self-efficacy. No difference was observed between genders in terms of the common effect and the partial effect of programming attitude and programming self-efficacy. However; differences were observed between participants from different departments and with different weekly study time. There was also a significant difference between the participants with different programming experience levels in terms of the common effect of programming attitude and self-efficacy, whereas no difference was found in terms of attitude alone.