CEREAL FOODS WORLD, vol.44, no.10, pp.710-714, 1999 (SCI-Expanded)
High-ratio cakes were baked in a prototype air impingement oven at 145, 160, and 175 degrees C and 35, 45, and 55 Hz fan speeds (1696, 2098, and 2485 ft/min) for 12, 16, and 20 min. Cakes were evaluated based on external and internal characteristics and compared with those baked in a reel oven. An RSM experimental design was used to study the effect of oven parameters on cake volume, crust color, and crumb firmness. For all tested parameters, baking time was much shorter in the impingement oven than in the reel oven. When baked at 160 degrees C for 16 min, cakes were of a color similar to that of the control cake but had lower volumes and firmer textures. At increased temperatures and times, air velocity had a greater effect on crumb firmness. Degree of bake was followed by measuring RVA end-point viscosity.